Relationship between muscle and bone
“Use it or loose it”
This motto applies in particular to the bone, because the bone adapts throughout its life to the maximum daily forces that act on it. These maximum forces lead to a small, elastic deformation of the bone (typically about 0.1 % to 0.2 % of its length). If this deformation exceeds a certain threshold, this stimulates the bone to grow. However, if this deformation falls below a second (lower) threshold, the bone is removed.
Beispiele für diesen Effekt sind der Knochenabbau bei Astronauten, wenn sie sich lange auf Raumstationen im All aufhalten, oder bei alten Menschen, wenn sie sich über lange Zeit zu wenig bewegen. Both then suffer from function-related bone loss, which can easily be confused with pathological osteoporosis – in medicine, however, this is referred to as osteopenia. Function-related bone loss can be compensated for through targeted Galileo training.
A strong Bone needs a strong Muscle!
Maximum forces during everyday movements
What forces actually act on our bones every day ?
A question to which a stunning answer must be given.
An answer that should make us rethink the topic of training and therapy, especially when it comes to the topic of bone formation, especially in osteoporosis.
EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FORCES
First of all, it is astonishing that the maximum forces acting on the bones are not generated by external influences, but by the muscles themselves. This becomes clear when you consider the typical leverage ratios in the body. The ankle joint serves as a good example. During stiff hopping on one leg (e.g. jumping rope), the front foot of a healthy person generates a force that corresponds to about 3.5 times the body weight. The force for this obviously has to be generated essentially by the calf muscle.
AMPLIFICATION THROUGH LEVERAGE IN THE BODY
If we now take into account that the ratio between the distance from the forefoot to the ankle joint and the distance from the ankle joint to the Achilles tendon, where the calf muscle attaches, is approximately 3:1, the calf muscle must generate a force equivalent to 10.5 times the body weight in order to be able to generate a force equivalent to 3.5 times the body weight at the forefoot (ground reaction force). Since the calf muscle needs an attachment, this force must also act on the bone. So, during everyday movements, a force of 14 times the body weight and more is easily exerted on the lower leg bones.
For comparison: If you come down hard on your heel with your leg stretched out, you generate a force that is typically twice or 3 times your body weight. In this case, however, there is no lever, so the same force also acts on the bone. This simple example therefore shows that normally forces acting on the bone through the muscles are significantly greater than external forces acting on the bone.
This fact makes it clear that the correct kind of daily exercise is necessary to avoid bone loss. Targeted Galileo therapy can prevent this bone loss by improving the (neuro-) muscular properties.
It is also clear from the observations that effective training for the bone generates large internal forces, adapted to the patient's capabilities. Effective training for the bones must therefore be demanding, but not too demanding, but definitely not gentle!
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Space Research -
A Model for Osteoporosis?
OSTEOPOROSIS IN SPACE ?In fact, Osteoporosis is a combination of disposition and lack of physical activity (especially at old age). The actual extent of the effect of lack of physical activity on bone and muscle loss can be seen in Astronauts during prolonged space flights. Even though they are very fit and comparably young especially atthe legs they develop the prestage of Osteoporosis, the Osteopenia. The reason is simply lack of physical activity, because there is no need to use the legs in the micro-gravity of space.
BEDREST STUDIES AS A MODELIn space research the lack of gravity (micro gravity) is simulated by so-called bedrest studies: Individuals must stay in bed all day for a period of 8 weeks - Work, shower, toilet - all in bed. Typically counter measures against the negative effects of micro-gravity and lack of physical activity on Bone, Muscle , Neurology and the cardiovascular system are tested - for example novel training systems. Galileo® has proven to be very effective and at the same time very efficient in this context.
VIbration Training in Space Research
Galileo® is in fact the vibration training device frequently used in space research.
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