Scientific background

A substantial part of scientific studies published in peer reviewed journals (currently more than 500) in the field of “vibration Therapy” and “Vibration Training” have been using Galileo devices.

Read below about the fundamental differences between Galileo therapy platforms and other vibration devices.

In addition, a distinction must be made between training equipment and equipment with medical device approval. Most of the available vibration devices are purely training devices without the extensive evidence based on published scientific studies that is required for a medical device.

Galileo Med L

Differences to non side-alternating devices

1. type of vibration

galileo logo small

Side-alternating vibration

Side alternation = rocking movement:
The left and right sides of the plate move up and down in opposite directions. Simulates the human gait.

vgl galileo pic1

The movement of the plates in Galileo therapy devices simulates physiological movements such as walking or running.

When walking, two of the same muscles on the right and left side of the body are never used at the same time in the same way – but always alternately!

Non-side-alternating vibration

Dominant vertical movement: Left and right side move up or down simultaneously.

vgl andere pic1

The non side-alternating up and down movement of many other vibration training devices does not correspond to the typical human form of locomotion (e.g. walking or running), as humans generally do not move in a hopping motion (like a frog or a kangaroo).

2. Influence on the back muscles

galileo logo small

Side-alternating vibration

The side-alternating movement of Galileo standing machines causes a reciprocal application of force to the legs, which is transferred to the pelvis. This lateral tilting of the pelvis leads to an alternating activation of the back muscles (analogous to physiological movement sequences such as walking and running).

Non-side-alternating vibration

By lifting both legs at the same time, the pelvis is not tilted but only moved vertically. The lack of side-alternating relative movement between pelvis and back decreases the training effect.

3. Broad frequency range enables a wide variety of therapy goals

galileo logo small

Side-alternating vibration

Galileo offers an adjustable frequency between e.g. 5 and 40 Hertz*.

The frequency range used determines the training objective:

Typical frequency ranges for Galileo are:

    • approx. 5-10 Hz – mobilisation
      Willful balancing of the rocking movement dominant. Dethonisation / muscle relaxation, improvement of proprioception and balance.
    • approx. 12-20 Hz – muscle function
      From approx. 12 Hz triggering of the stretch reflex dominant. Improvement of muscle function and coordination, muscle relaxation and release, stretching of the muscle and tendon system, flexibility, promotion of blood circulation.
    • approx. 25-40 Hz – muscle power
      Increasing tone, increasing muscle power and endurance capacity, increasing or maintaining muscle strength, muscle building, body shaping.Increasing tone, i

*) the frequency range varies between 12 to 27 or 5 to 40 Hz depending on the device model.

Non-side-alternating vibration

Usually adjustable from approx. 20 Hz to 60 Hz (mostly between 25 and 40 Hz).

Therefore, the use of frequencies below 20 Hz with the associated therapy goals is generally not possible (only a few vertically vibrating devices support frequencies below 20 Hz).

  • approx. 20-50 Hz – muscle power
    Increasing tone, increasing muscle power and endurance capacity, increasing or restoring muscle strength, spasticity management.

4. easily adjustable amplitude (intensity)

galileo logo small

Side-alternating vibration

The amplitude (deflection of the plate) essentially determines the intensity of the application. With Galileo standing units, the amplitude can be freely selected simply by foot position between approx. 0 and up to 6 mm (corresponds to a stroke of approx. 0 to 12 mm)*.

*) the maximum possible amplitude varies between 2.5 and 6 mm depending on the device variant.

Non-side-alternating vibration

The vast majority of all devices offer little or even only one pre-set amplitude, usually 1 mm to 2 mm (corresponding to a stroke of 2 mm to 4 mm).

5. Reproducibility of the force application

galileo logo small

Side-alternating vibration

Highly reproducible movement of the vibration platform due to the mechanically guided movement (imprinted path).
The design of Galileo Therapy equipment provides sinusoidal (harmonic) motion of the vibration platform, regardless of the user’s body weight and stiffness.
This allows an objective assessment and comparability of parameters and thus of training successes, which is a significant advantage for the use of Galileo equipment in scientific studies, for example.

Non-side-alternating vibration

Usually no mechanically guided movement
(thus no imprinted path). Spring-mass systems are usually used as drives. However, these are principally dependent on the mass and stiffness of the person exercising.

6. Vibration transmission to the head

galileo logo small

Side-alternating vibration

Due to the side alternation principle, there is very little vibration at the head: The rocking movement of Galileo standing devices results in an alternating application of force to the legs, which is transferred to the pelvis. This lateral tilting of the pelvis causes a reciprocal activation of the back muscles, analogous to physiological movement patterns such as walking and running. The spine thus ends up in the axis of rotation of the lateral pelvic movement, which significantly reduces the vertical movement of the spine and that of the head.

Non-side-alternating vibration

The head vibrates much stronger:
By lifting both legs at the same time, the pelvis is not tilted but accelerated vertically to different degrees depending on the leg stiffness. Due to the lack of compensating movement of the pelvis, the spine and thus the head are moved significantly more than with the side-alternating movement.

More detailed background information can also be found in: Rittweger, Rawer et. Al: Manual of Vibration Exercise and Vibration Therapy, Chapter 3: Design Principles of Available Machines, Springer 2020; ISBN: 978-3-030-43985-9

Differences to low intensity vibration


Low-intensity vibration machines are also vertically vibrating devices, but with very low amplitudes in the range of 0.1 mm, in the frequency range of typically 20-50 Hz.

In addition to the aforementioned differences to vertically oscillating units, the following aspects must also be taken into account.

Safety aspects

The main argument in favour of micro-vibration is the claim that larger amplitudes would violate occupational safety regulations and would therefore be dangerous, especially in the case of osteoporosis.

However, this is not correct for the following reasons:

  1. The amplitude of Galileo devices is continuously adjustable according to the selected foot position. With the typically used amplitudes of approx. 2 mm at higher frequencies (30 Hz), regular use of up to 30 minutes per day is therefore harmless according to occupational safety standards.
  2. Typical negative side effects considered in the field of occupational safety are circulatory disorders. However, the literature on Galileo application shows increased and not reduced blood flow.
  3. More than 25 years of experience in the use of Galileo in osteoporosis patients, but also the use in brittle bone patients (osteogenesis imperfecta) with consistently positive results disprove the claim.

Occupational safety standards are based on non-physiological impact-type applications (e.g. jackhammer). They are therefore not correctly applicable to training and therapy based on physiological forms of movement (i.e. movement sequences known to the body and used on a daily basis).

Study data

Compared to the number of studies on vibration at higher amplitudes, currently around 1000 publications, more than 500 of them with Galileo alone, the field of micro-vibration is a niche research topic with a number of publications in the human field in the low two-digit range.

Duration of application

The typical duration of use for micro-vibration, as used in studies, is between 20 and 30 minutes daily with upright (passive) standing.

In comparison, the typical use in the field of osteoporosis in studies conducted with Galileo is 9 minutes 2 to 3 times per week.

Application objectives

The typical therapeutic target for the use of micro-vibration, which has also been scientifically studied, is primarily the bone itself. However, this falls short of the risks for osteoporosis patients, because it simply ignores the crucial point of fall prevention.

However, fall prevention is a neuro-muscular issue (balance, proprioception, flexibility, functional and powerful "strong" muscles). These are all aspects on which the effectiveness of Galileo Therapy has been proven in many studies. Galileo therapy thus follows a holistic approach and does not focus on the bone alone, as many medications do.

AdobeStock 74072470 CTA 1

Do you have further questions about the use of Galileo ® Therapy?

Simply arrange a non-binding consultation.

Differences to low-cost side-alternating units

Sophisticated design allows wide range of performance and applications

A complex mechanism requires more individual parts and is therefore more expensive to manufacture. However, this allows smooth operation over a very wide frequency spectrum without having to resort to aids such as suction cups on the feet or a very high unit mass.

A statement such as: "A good vibration training device must weigh at least 50 kg" therefore applies at best to devices where drastic savings have been made on the mechanics at the expense of the function.

However, a complex and sophisticated construction, like Galileo's, also allows for a very high durability and sustainability, because it can be repaired if necessary.

Range of applications

Usually adjustable from approx. 5 Hz to 14 Hz (even if the display shows 1-50 steps).

Therefore, the use of frequencies above 15 Hz with the associated therapy goals is generally not possible.

In particular, coordinative exercises at 15-20 Hz, but also exercises to build up muscles and to increase the function/performance of the muscles are only possible to a limited extent in this way.


The complex mechanics, especially the double-sided drive, enables a highly reproducible application largely independent of body mass and muscle function. It guarantees a constant stimulus even during intensive training.

Safety aspects

The field of occupational safety deals with impact-like, non-physiological forces, such as those that occur when operating a jackhammer.

Cheap units with much simpler mechanics (e.g. with a single-sided drive), however, generate shock-like components due to their design. This is particularly noticeable during intensive use, for example because the tread surface twists or the feet of the device are briefly relieved during the workout despite suction cups and the device hits the hard floor again during the subsequent downward movement.

Galileo devices, on the other hand, are designed due to their complex mechanics: to generate sinusoidal (harmonic) movements and thus avoid shock-like components (high-frequency components). In addition, if the user should use the device incorrectly, the Galileo Smart Coaching function ensures that the user is warned or even the intensity is automatically reduced*.

*) Depending on the Galileo unit version, the range of functions varies.

Study data

There are currently well over 500 scientific publications on the application of Galileo devices alone. They cover an extremely wide range of applications. All publications to which we refer were also carried out with Galileo devices.

The mass of vibration devices on the market, on the other hand, use studies that were carried out with other devices, often with other frequencies, other amplitudes or even other principles of action. Usually, however, there is no proof that these study results can be transferred to the company's own product.

A good study situation based on the advertised device is therefore essential to ensure that results of studies can also be achieved.

Quality: durability and sustainability

A well designed device mechanics is crucial to enable a long-lasting but also easily repairable system - both essential aspects of sustainability. The elaborate design of the Galileo units therefore not only enables smooth running, but also minimises internal wear.

For Galileo devices, 10 or 15 years of use even in professional daily use is the norm and not the exception. As standard, we guarantee availability of spare parts for at least 10 years after purchase. If requested, we can also repair all Galileo device variants ever produced in the last 25 years.

Made in Germany

In order to meet our very high quality standards, Galileo devices are developed and produced exclusively in Germany.

Systems below the €3000 mark, on the other hand, are almost exclusively produced in Asia, especially in China.

Galileo® Space

VIbration Training in Space Research

Galileo® is in fact the vibration training device frequently used in space research.

You would like to learn more about the background of Galileo® Therapy?n ?

Choose one of the following topics:

Galileo® Working principle side alternation

Frequency ranges
and their effect

Galileo® Basic exercises

The Galileo® Research Fact sheets

Research results for Galileo® devices

Let Galileo® Therapy convince you!

Numerous scientific studies prove the effectiveness of therapy with Galileo.
Benefit from the knowledge gained from 25 years of experience and from over 500 scientific publications on Galileo worldwide.